Singular and plural nouns

The majority of English nouns form a plural form simply: you just need to add -s/-es to the end of a word. But also there is a wide range of exceptions that makes the main rule a bit more difficult. Some plurals are formed logically but some forms must be memorized.

Main rules

As we mentioned above, most of English nouns form its plural by adding -s/-es to the end of a word. 

For example πŸ‘‡

a dog πŸ‘‰ dogs

a table πŸ‘‰ tables

a door πŸ‘‰ doors

If a singular noun ends in s, x, z, ch, sh, we add -es to make a plural form.

For example πŸ‘‡

an actress πŸ‘‰ actresses

a bus πŸ‘‰ buses

a birch πŸ‘‰ birches

a tax πŸ‘‰ taxes

a bush πŸ‘‰ bushes

Sometimes we need to double -s when a word ends in the same letter. 

For example πŸ‘‡

a gas πŸ‘‰ gasses

If a word ends in -y and has a consonant before it, we make an -ies ending.

For example πŸ‘‡

a city πŸ‘‰ cities

a baby πŸ‘‰ babies

a lady πŸ‘‰ ladies

a fly πŸ‘‰ flies

If a word ends in -y and has a vowel before it, we add -s.

a boy πŸ‘‰ boys

a day πŸ‘‰ days

a way πŸ‘‰ ways

If a word ends in -o, we add -es to it.

tomato πŸ‘‰ tomatoes

potato πŸ‘‰ potatoes


a photo πŸ‘‰ photos

a piano πŸ‘‰ pianos


Be careful, there is a big list of exceptions that needs to be memorized πŸ‘‡

Irregular nouns

Nouns that have the same form 

Always plural nouns that require a singular verb

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